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Safety & Security for
Meetings & Events 

Chapter 3
People Movement & Management


 

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Sep 26, 2019

Crowd management is a critical function of your safety and security event planning, and it is important to study flow patterns in and around your venues

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Chapters


 

3

PEOPLE MOVEMENT & MANAGEMENT

Learn the best practices for studying crowd flow patterns, creating evacuation plans, and learning people behavioral patterns and movement.

 


People-Movement

    People Movement & Management Blogs

    3 - People Movement & Management
    Crowd management is a critical function of your safety and security event planning, and it is important to study flow patterns in and around your venues

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    PEOPLE MOVEMENT
    AND MANAGEMENT

    1. Best Practice:

    Study flow patterns in and around the venue to identify manageable methods to prevent overcrowding at any location.

    • Also analyze patron arrival times, how they arrive, what they bring, etc.
    • Conduct surveys of arriving crowd, ask where they parked, how they arrived (shuttle, mass transit), how long they stood in line, etc.
    • Use CCTV to follow a guest and monitor how long until the guest arrives at the door

    Objectives:

    • To reduce congestion and enhance patron experience.
    • To better plan for effective people movement through event, evacuation and sheltering-in-place.
    • Liability mitigation.

     

    Implementation:

    Video coverage/capture is essential to conducting and validating the analysis both real-time and after event.

     

    Several modes of transportation (cars, trains, subways, buses) may offer electronic tracking of passengers.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    This is beneficial and necessary for events of 100 or more patrons entering and moving around a venue.

     

    The larger the event (many patrons) the more important.

    1. Best Practice:

    Develop a People/ Crowd Management Plan, (ingress/egress, density, direction, speed, capacity, etc.) utilizing industry methodologies.

    • The key to understanding space requirements for a crowd is understanding how much space is required for each person (density = people per square yard or meter)

     

    Objectives:

    Predictable is preventable. Anticipate crowd dynamic issues.

     

    Implementation:

    Local Fire Marshall can assist as in most cases the Fire Marshal will have to approve occupancy and permitting.

     

    Having trained staff and processes in place for rapid dissemination of specific instructions is critical in preventing and mitigating potential problems.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    These event plans can help you in preparing for many future events.

    1. Best Practice:

    The development of a Crowd Management Plan must take in to account crowd dynamics and employ some reliable analytical tools.

    • The following tools have been validated to provide effective analytics:
      • DIM = Design – Information Management
      • ICE = Ingress – Circulation Egress
      • RAMP = Routes – Areas – Movement Profile

    Three primary influences on crowd behavior (DIM):

    DESIGN

    • Site areas-different usage of space-static or moving crowds, capacity, ingress/egress flow rates, normal and emergency.

    INFORMATION

    • Signage, maps, social media, news reports, site communication systems, normal and emergency information.

    MANAGEMENT

    • Process, procedures, communication systems, chain of command, normal and emergency situations and relaying information to those responsible for public safety.

    There are three primary phases of crowd movement/behavior: (ICE)

    INGRESS

    • Getting in, queuing, screening, barrier design, information, management, flow rates, arrival profiles, early detection of problems.

    CIRCULATION

    • Moving around–queuing, design, information/signage, management, contingency planning, red flagging

    EGRESS

    • Getting out, flow rates, egress times, congregating. Normal and emergency, red flagging

    You need to understand how these phases and influences affect crowd movement/behavior.

    Dynamics = Routes, Areas, Movement, Profile (RAMP) ROUTES (directions)

    • Which directions are the crowds moving (ICE)?

    AREAS (spaces)

    • What space do we have? How is it used?

    MOVEMENT (flow rates)

    • Over what periods of time will crowds arrive/depart? How quickly do the key spaces fill (i.e. queuing spaces)? What elements may change the arrival/departure rate?

    PROFILE (people)

    • What do we know of the crowd demographic/history?

    Objectives:

    • Reduces legal liability.
    • Prevention/protection.

     

    Implementation:

    These tools are designed to collect/collate information for events. They are used to:

    • Compare and contrast events
    • Identify areas for improvement
    • Standardize the event planning/licensing/operations
    • Determine capacities and flow

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    Applicable to any size event.

    1. Best Practice:

    Crowd Modeling is an essential element of developing an effective People/ Crowd Management Plan. To begin modeling there is a need to understand the venue, its capacity, access and egress routes, the transportation infrastructure, venue constraints under different configurations and weather conditions.

     

    Key questions for initial analysis:

    • What is the type event and why is the crowd coming to this venue?

    Objectives:

    Reduces legal liability. Prevention/protection. Improves patron experience.

     

    Implementation:

    Failure to recognize risk is evidence of either negligence or incompetence in event planning. Three fundamental elements that was common to major incidents are:

    • DESIGN – related incidents, appear to have been a miscalculation to crowd flow and space capacity
    • INFORMATION – related incidents, appears to have been an external influence on crowd behavior that induced an accident/ incident
    • MANAGEMENT – related incidents, appears to have been one or more management decisions responsible for accident/ incident

    Most major crowd disasters can be prevented by simple crowd management strategies. Primary crowd management objectives are avoidance of critical crowd densities and effective flow patterns.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    For events with 100+ patrons.

    1. Best Practice:

    Have trained crowd managers for events. NFPA recommends a ratio of 1 trained crowd manager for every 250 patrons.

     

    Objectives:

    Reduce legal liability.

     

    Implementation:

    NFPA Crowd Manager requirements (NFPA 101®: Life Safety Code®, Sections 12.7.6.1/13.7.6.1).

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    This is important for the wellbeing of patrons.

    1. Best Practice:

    Crowd Management Plan should address the following:

    • Ensure exits are marked, exit doors are operational, and all egress paths are unobstructed
    • Ensure fire alarms, sprinkler systems, and emergency lighting is operational.
    • Ensure fire lanes are unobstructed
    • Put in place an emergency notification plan, including how people will be notified and who will deliver the message
    • Ensure aisles and other exit routes remain clear throughout the event
    • Identify potential spaces and events where crowd
    • Management requirements would apply
    • Develop a simple training program and a checklist to be used by crowd managers

     

    Objectives:

    Prevention/protection.

     

    Implementation:

    Fire Marshall can assist.

     

    Become versed in the NFPA Crowd Manager requirements (NFPA 101®: Life Safety Code®, Sections 12.7.6.1/13.7.6.1) and the requirement of the local agency having jurisdiction. Some jurisdictions have different thresholds, and they may allow for changes in the requirements based on the nature of the event or whether or not a building is fully equipped with sprinklers.

    1. Best Practice:

    Establish, communicate and enforce a Code of Conduct (rules of acceptable and unacceptable behavior).

    • Include Code of Conduct to event day program and online
    • Post signage where possible
    • Be consistent with enforcement
    • Encourage and provide a platform/mechanism for patrons to report violations

     

    Objectives:

    • Prevention over confrontation.
    • Deters continued acts of unacceptable/disruptive behavior.
    • Gives you the legal basis to take action when required. Helps manage expectations.

     

    Implementation:

    Involve all stakeholders (venue management, event staff, law enforcement and patrons) in the process of establishing the Code to ensure buy in from all groups that have a role in following and enforcing it.

     

    Set standards, stick to them and hold violators accountable. Be fair and consistent across the board when enforcing code/policy violations.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    This works for all size of events, but the larger the event and the larger the venue the more important this becomes.

    1. Best Practice:

    Advertise and enforce sanctions for inappropriate behavior.

     

    Objectives:

    Create awareness as to what is acceptable and what is not.

     

    Implementation:

    Communicate prior to and during the event. Broadcast prior to event and during intermissions/ breaks.

    1. Best Practice:

    Work within and across venues and the event industry to develop a baseline patron Code of Conduct.

     

    Objectives:

    Consistency among events/venues.

     

    Implementation:

    Set consistent expectation regardless of location.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    Events/venues can expand upon baseline based on the needs and demographics of their event.

    1. Best Practice:

    Designate smoking areas if allowed by local or state law and enforce and a no smoking policy outside of those areas.

     

    Objectives:

    Attendee health and comfort.

     

    Implementation:

    Most venues already have this in place, many states and cities have laws prohibiting smoking in venues.

    1. Best Practice:

    Develop legal, fair and consistent policies that are in compliance with ADA and civil rights laws that will serve to avoid claims of bias from profiling, discrimination or mistreatment.

    • Include a specialist as part of event operations, such as an on-duty ombudsman for referral of complaints, ADA compliance or biased based conduct
    • Understand the limitations and capabilities of the operating venue
    • Ensure proper training by venue staff of operation of equipment such as ADA lifts, vehicles or ramps

     

    Objectives:

    • Provides standards and guidance in the treatment of patrons and staff for fairness and consistency.
    • Reduces legal liability.
    • Ensure readiness of event staff in compliance and communication.

     

    Implementation:

    Include cultural and disability awareness, including the use of service animals in staff training.

     

    Involve human resources and expertise in planning, policy development and training.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    This serves to insulate event liability from lawsuits.

    1. Best Practice:

    Follow the Evacuation/ Sheltering Plan in the EAP for the venue.

    • Develop with input from public safety partners and venue facilities staff
    • Take into account attendance, considering both participants and patrons
    • Review with Incident Command staff at briefings
    • Designate official who will make the decision
    • Plan should cover all-hazards
    • Train staff as added and reinforce before every event
    • Exercise the plan

    Objectives:

    Life safety is first and foremost. Provides instructions and guidance to effectively address safety of all individuals in attendance

     

    Implementation:

    SEE EAP

     

    The Evacuation/Sheltering-in-Place plan is an essential element of the EAP.

     

    Test staff on evacuation job duties, evacuation routes, etc. Ask staff the following questions before each event:

    • Where is the nearest fire extinguisher?
    • Where is the nearest exit?
    • If that exit is blocked, where would guests be directed?

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    Size of event will define complexity, but all size events require an evacuation/sheltering plan. Plan will likely require approval of the Fire Marshal in many jurisdictions. This may be the responsibility of the venue or the event producer.

    1. Best Practice:

    Prior to initiating an evacuation, take into consideration the inherent risks with an evacuation.

    • Sometimes the best course of action is not to evacuate, or to partially evacuate, and sometimes shelter-inplace or relocation is the best option
    • Determine the least invasive and most effective method to evacuate attendees from potentially dangerous conditions to include partial evacuations
    • Evacuation planning should be based on a risk assessment that takes time and distance into account

     

    Objectives:

    Think through the process, pre-plan as the decision will likely depend upon the situation at the time. Know your options.

     

    Implementation:

    Based upon a people management analysis, identify sheltering-in-place (occupancy) throughout the venue for various incidents, in conjunction with the Fire Marshall.

     

    Consider today’s social media environment when making decisions and anticipate that it may outpace venue communications if decisions are not made in a timely fashion.

     

    Staff training is critical. Brief and exercise procedures.

     

    1. Best Practice:

    Making the decision to evacuate, shelter-in-place or relocate during an incident is a complicated process and requires input from various entities knowledgeable in the structure of the facility, the size, distribution and condition of the patrons, participants, the hazard involved and the anticipated response to that hazard.

    • Identify the individual who has the authority to make the decision to evacuate/ shelter-in-place/relocate, along with how it will be communicated

    Objectives:

    • Consider all inputs and hazards.
    • Reduces confusion.
    • Identify ahead of time the parties involved in making this decision and have pre-defined rally point(s) to convene should a decision need to be made.

     

    Implementation:

    Plan, train, exercise.

     

    SEE EAP

     

    Must be on site.

     

    1. Best Practice:

    The full or partial evacuation, sheltering-in-place, relocation, including designation of routes, should be identified and evaluated for each type incident during planning and updated regularly.

     

    Implementation:

    These should be included in the Plan and is applicable to all size venues.

    1. Best Practice:

    Follow the Evacuation/ Sheltering-In-Place Plan in EAP.

    • Ensure staff is familiar and trained in the Plan
    • Pre-scripted messages should be prepared and used for all contingencies
    • Understand where people will be evacuated to in the venue

     

    Objectives:

    The Evacuation/Sheltering-In-Place Plan should provide instructions and guidance on effectively addressing the safety of all individuals.

     

    Implementation:

    The Evacuation/Sheltering-In-Place Plan is an essential element of the EAP.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    Essential for all size events.

    1. Best Practice:

    Approach an Evacuation/Shelter-In-Place/ Relocation Plan by first assessing the potential hazards created by an incident. Then recognize and understand the inherent characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of the venue’s infrastructure and available resources.

    Implementation:

    Review all possible causes and plan accordingly.

     

    Determine the least invasive and most effective method to evacuate people from potentially dangerous conditions to include partial evacuations/shelter-in-place and relocations.

    1. Best Practice:

    Have EMT and medical personnel on standby to treat injuries.

     

    Objectives:

    Ensures timely response to slip-and-fall incidents and stress/exertion related ailments.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    Especially for large events.

    1. Best Practice:

    Follow the Shelter-InPlace Plan in EAP.

    • Ensure staff is familiar and trained with the Plan
    • Must identify sheltering areas, their capacity and routes to them

     

    Objectives:

    Plan, train and exercise.

     

    Implementation:

    See EAP

     

    Use computer simulations to test plans and train staff as often as possible.

     

    1. Best Practice:

    Pre-determine sheltering locations and capacities based upon length of sheltering (event based) for various weather or chemical release incidents.

     

    Objectives:

    Foresight allows for better understanding of potential outcomes.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    Shorter terms of shelter can accommodate closer positioning, longer sheltering requires greater individual space.

    1. Best Practice:

    Sheltering-in-place should always be considered as an option for protecting spectators and participants from adverse weather conditions.

     

    Objectives:

    Based upon circumstances, pre-designate areas for housing/sheltering.

     

    Implementation:

    This is going to be dependent upon the environment (rural, suburban or urban) and surrounding facilities.

    1. Best Practice:

    Time, conditions, circumstances, number of people and the incident type will dictate whether the action is voluntary or mandatory.

    • Anticipate that an incident could occur that causes a non-ordered impromptu/ panic mass flight/evacuation–consider how to respond

     

    Objectives:

    • Anticipate different potential causes and outcomes.
    • Unanticipated incident.

     

    Implementation:

    This is clearly the most dangerous of situations due to panic/stampede flight. Plan response on how to use crowd flow, environment and methods of communication.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    This is when a well-trained staff pays dividends and saves lives.

     

    Even in non-hazardous weather conditions expect crowds to instinctively seek shelter.

    1. Best Practice:

    Use the venue’s PA system, video capabilities, website, and social media to provide information and communicate with guests that are at the event/venue.

     

    Objectives:

    Broadest coverage to reach out.

     

    Implementation:

    Consider public safety communication capabilities, commercial radios, landlines, cellular, ham radios, video boards, broadcast media, social media, PA systems and public safety vehicles.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    Know what you have to communicate with at all times since it will vary with different events and venues.

    1. Best Practice:

    During an emergency, use all available means of communication to provide timely. Consistent, and accurate information to concerned friends/families of patrons who may be monitoring from home.

     

    Objectives:

    Reduce/avoid the spreading of misinformation.

     

    Implementation:

    Assign a Public Information Officer (PIO) who will communicate information to the media and public. Having a unified message is important to avoid confusion. Coordinate messages between agencies such as municipal public safety PIOs.

     

    Have pre-written scripts for emergency situations that can be posted to official venue and/or team social media accounts, as well as local law enforcement and responding public safety agencies.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    Coordinate messages between agencies such as municipal public safety PIOs.

    1. Best Practice:

    All open access points should be manned and only authorized, ticketed, credentialed and, if required, screened individuals should be permitted to enter the venue/event.

    • Make sure participants are who they say they are by requiring a photo ID during check-in.
    • Alert attendees about the need to show ID and visually ware badging/ credential.

     

    Objectives:

    Establish control and maintain security.

     

    Implementation:

    Standard operating procedure.

     

    Consider use of red teams to test access control program.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    This would include meeting rooms, conference halls, exhibit halls, centers, etc. The smaller and least risk the easier if at all vs. the larger, sensitive and higher risk events that require more controls.

     

    Check-in kiosks are convenient, but no one should receive a badge without proving they are who they say they are.

    1. Best Practice:

    Develop written credential processes and policies to assist in controlling access to and within the venue for events requiring greater security.

     

    Objectives:

    Litigation protection. Maintain security.

     

    Implementation:

    Limit the number of credentials issued. Use different shapes, sizes, colors, and technology. This makes enforcement easier for staff. Consider using matching wrist bands for:

    • Parent and child
    • Senior and family member or friend

     

    Reference the DHS Best Practice Guide for Credentials

     

    1. Best Practice:

    Use color coded credential boards at all restricted access points to assist staff for clarity and to reduce confusion.

    • Post credential boards at all access control points.

     

    Objectives:

    Eliminate confusion of staff and those with credentials.

     

    Implementation:

    Assists staff and streamlines entry. To reduce counterfeiting consider using:

    • Two-sided printing
    • Unique shape/color
    • Use of RFID
    • Holograms

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    This is for larger events where security concerns or only paying attendees are permitted.

     

    This information can also be made available on staff smartphones.

    1. Best Practice:

    Secure the following areas and post staff or use biometric reader access control devices (fingerprint, IRIS scan, facial recognition) to control access:

    • Mechanical/utility rooms
    • Classrooms
    • Conference halls
    • Stage
    • Storage areas
    • Operations Center

     

    Objectives:

    Prevent unauthorized access.

     

    Implementation:

    Assign competent and trusted staff.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    For most venues, ensuring that spaces of this nature remain locked and that access to keys is controlled and documented.

    1. Best Practice:

    Utilize marquees, public address systems, social media and electronic message boards to communicate to patrons entering the venue/event of the protective measures, locations, procedures, restrictions, prohibited items, evacuation routes and Hot Line number.

     

    Objectives:

    • Avoid confusion concerning who, what is and is not permitted in to the venue.
    • Speeds entry.

     

    Implementation:

    Communicate expectations reduces confusion.

    1. Best Practice:

    Establish a policy and refuse entry into the venue to anyone who declines to have his/her person or possessions screened/ searched.

    • Must be posted at gates and using all available sources; should be printed on parking permits, tickets, and credentials
    • Train staff to be respectful of patrons and possessions
    • Visiting talent, personal items, vehicles and equipment trucks should be screened. This should apply to performers as well.

     

    Objectives:

    • 100% enforcement.
    • To be legally defensible.

     

    Implementation:

    Consistency in applying the rules will help and having law enforcement officers nearby is strongly recommended.

     

    Reference the DHS Best Practice Guides for Patron Screening and Bag Searches

     

    Reference the Check-It Video, available at www. dhs.gov/video/check-itbag-check-video

     

    Use PA and video board messages at the doors/ gates, if available. Consider assigning staff to queue lines to identify prohibited items. Consideration should be given to establishing a secondary perimeter for large events.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    This is applicable when screening is required based on talent, attendee demographics, historical observation or event intelligence warrants.

     

    Sufficient and effective training is essential.

    1. Best Practice:

    Establish a written policy regarding permitted and prohibited items that will or will not be allowed in venue.

    • Consider prohibiting: Coolers, bags, backpacks, containers, explosives, chemicals, weapons, alcohol, drugs, tools, poles, canes, selfie sticks, flammable liquids, fireworks, flares, tents, chairs, sleeping bags, blankets, glass containers and suitcases
    • Post a list of prohibited items at lodging and transit locations (busses and trains, parking lots and entrances to the venue), on venue website, and using all sources available

     

    Objectives:

    • Must be written and communicated to be legally enforceable.
    • To reduce confusion and prevent patrons from getting to the gates with prohibited items.

     

    Implementation:

    Communicate these policies and have participants and spectators consent to these searches as a requirement for entry and printed on tickets. Ensure that gate/screening staff are familiar with the policies and enforce them consistently.

     

    Consider clear bag policy.

    1. Best Practice:

    Develop procedures for staff in conducting proper screening techniques. Procedures should include the use and deployment of staff and equipment. There should not be any exceptions.

     

    Objectives:

    Legal defensibility. Must be written and communicated to be legally enforceable.

     

    Implementation:

    Enforce compliance with policy and or procedures. Whatever primary method is used for screening, have a secondary method available.

     

    Test screening equipment and staff performance under actual live conditions and in real-time with penetration tests.

    1. Best Practice:

    Base screening process and implementation upon local law, policy, threat/risk assessment (acceptable risk level), current intelligence, past event history, indoor or outdoor event, situational awareness of the specific event and current world climate.

     

    Objectives:

    Most appropriate process for the circumstances.

     

    Implementation:

    Screenings in some form or fashion should be conducted even if random. Increasing to higher levels of screenings can be done on an event by event basis based on current intelligence, past history, known VIP attendees, etc.

    1. Best Practice:

    Develop a procedure with law enforcement/ fire department to address handling of dangerous/ prohibited items.

    • Do not let patrons discard items at entry doors/gates

     

    Objectives:

    This will prevent confusion at the gate if an item is discovered.

     

    Implementation:

    Have a safe disposition plan.

    1. Best Practice:

    Post signs near all entrances clearly stating that no firearms or weapons are allowed in the facility

     

    Objectives:

    Prevent firearms consistent with local/state laws.

     

    Implementation:

    Signs should cite applicable statutes or ordinances. Since many venues are on public property firearms laws will vary greatly from city to city and state to state. Must comply with laws.

    1. Best Practice:

    Must include some form of personal screening: visual inspections, pat downs and/or metal detectors (hand-held wands/walkthrough).

    • May be random or mandatory 100% screening Everyone (participants, spectators, event staff, volunteers, and sponsors), needs to be screened, at least visually without exception
    • The most efficient is walk through metal detectors as primary, handheld wands as secondary and gender specific pat downs as the final option
    • Provide for multiple trained techniques and technologies as back-up systems in the event of a technical failure

     

    Objectives:

    To prevent prohibited/ dangerous items from being brought into the venue/event.

     

    Implementation:

    Visual observation is the least intrusive and the least reliable for the untrained eye and even for the trained eye

     

    A pat down is the most intrusive and requires the most training due to sensitivity issues. It also takes the most time. If this method is employed, use all trained adults for this function.

     

    Metal detectors (hand held or walkthrough) are very good for metallic items

     

    The appearance of a professional and efficient screening operation is also an effective deterrent

     

    Screenings should be conducted by venue security staff with law enforcement as a back-up, where available

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    Consider what is best for your situation.

    1. Best Practice:

    If pat-downs are to be used, ensure extensive training is provided, to include sensitivity training.

    • All primary screening should be conducted by non-law enforcement security staff, backed up by law enforcement
    • Use only gender specific (male on male, female on female) pat-downs.
    • Provide private screening locations; screenings should be conducted by a gender specific security officer with a second gender specific security officer as a witness

     

    Objectives:

    This is the least desirable and most problematic.

     

    Implementation:

    Ideally, for all screening options there should be a law enforcement officer at each screening point, where available.

     

    If pat-downs are used provide monitored semi-private locations for patdowns, when possible.

     

    If pat-downs are used provide monitored semi-private locations for patdowns, when possible.

    1. Best Practice:

    If handheld wand metal detectors are employed, ensure staff are trained and enough devices are available to prevent long lines.

     

    Objectives:

    This is good but training and manpower intensive.

     

    Implementation:

    These are mobile and can be moved between gates. Calibrate devices and be sure to have spares.

    1. Best Practice:

    If walk-through metal detectors (magnetometers) are employed, ensure sufficient training and calibration of devices; must do further screening for all alerts.

     

    Objectives:

    This requires training but is less manpower intensive and less intrusive.

     

    Implementation:

    These are mobile and can be moved between gates; ensure calibration and review sensitivity.

     

    Ensure a sufficient amount of handheld wand metaldetectors are also available.

    1. Best Practice:

    If metal detectors are used, visually inspect items that activate the detector.

     

    Objectives:

    Ensures that items are not disguised as something they are not and that weapons are not introduced into the venue.

     

    Implementation:

    Be consistent.

    1. Best Practice:

    Develop procedures and training for whatever level(s) of screening are used.

    • Have male staff search male patrons and female staff search female patrons
    • Develop procedures and training for screening of small children and disabled patrons
    • Include sensitivity training
    • Video all screening operations

     

    Objectives:

    • Helps avoid complaints.
    • Litigation protection

     

    Implementation:

    Texas Engineering Extension Services (TEEX) offers basic security operations training in access control, personnel, baggage and vehicle screening.

     

    Reviewing video coverage is a great tool for after-event analysis/ learning about screening process at all entry points.

    1. Best Practice:

    Train staff to heighten personal screening/searches in the event security conditions change.

     

    Objectives:

    Respond to elevated threat levels.

     

    Implementation:

    Ensure that staff responsible for checking bags is properly trained. Using DHS’s Sports Venue Bag Search Procedures Guide and document their viewing of “Check It” bag search video.

     

    Reference the Check-It Video, available at www. dhs.gov/video/check-itbag-check-video.

    1. Best Practice:

    If metal detectors are used, calibrate them before each use and document it.

     

    Objectives:

    For legal liability.

     

    Implementation:

    Have spare metal detectors available (i.e. hand wands or walk-through magnetometers).

    1. Best Practice:

    Set up special entry lanes at doors/gates around venue for:

    • Patrons with NO items to screen (express lane/gate)
    • Patrons with medical devices (oxygen tanks, medical syringes, wheelchairs, etc.)
    • Mothers with diaper bags for young children (must have child with them)

     

    Objectives:

    To expedite entry and reduce aggravation.

     

    Implementation:

    Make sure to have appropriate signage to inform patrons of the “with and without” items lanes/gates to help patrons discern the correct lane for them.

    1. Best Practice:

    Inspect ALL possessions, items, and/or containers that are permitted into the venue. If bags/containers (of any type) are permitted, inspect at entry points (preceding ticket takers) before entry to the venue.

    • Use tables for bag screening and provide 12-inchlong-20-inch-long dowel rods attached to flashlights for staff to probe inside bags to speed the process
    • Train staff to conduct these checks and to NEVER put their hands into containers/purses/bags
    • Provide screeners with latex gloves
    • Ensure sufficient lighting at all screening areas for evening events
    • Document training

     

    All primary screening should be conducted by venue/event security staff and backed up by law enforcement, where possible. 

     

    Objectives:

    • To prevent prohibited items from being brought into the venue.
    • This protects staff’s hands from cuts, scratches and contaminations.

     

    Implementation:

    Reducing what patrons can bring into venues significantly decreases risk and expedites the entry process.

     

    Bag searches tend to be the most inconsistent.

     

    Consider using clear bags for easier examination and to expedite entry. The smaller the better-consider 12’ X 6’ X 12’.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    Depending on your event, the venue and its security requirements will determine what is or isn’t permitted and what level of screening is required.

    1. Best Practice:

    Conduct a visual inspection, requiring attendees to open their possessions and, if necessary, empty the contents into a bin. Consider setting up separate lines for people who:

    • Require a more detailed inspection of possessions
    • For those entering without any possessions that require inspection
    • For disabled/mobility impaired or others with special needs.

     

    Objectives:

    Streamline process to reduce time.

     

    Implementation:

    Consider using bins (i.e. airport TSA screening) for personal items instead of emptying contents onto a tabletop. This process is already socially acceptable, and patrons are less likely to lose/drop property. It may also speed up the screening process.

    1. Best Practice:

    Set up tables for items to be placed on for inspection depending upon what items are permitted to be brought into the venue.

     

    Objectives:

    Ease of observation.

     

    Implementation:

    Tables speed up the process and provide a stable platform to place items for inspection. Also serves as a barrier between staff and attendees.

    1. Best Practice:

    Develop procedures and training for whatever level of screening used.

     

    Objectives:

    Ensures consistent operation among staff members and reduces delays.

     

    Implementation:

    Have staff be discreet and courteous.

     

    Ensure that staff responsible for checking bags is properly trained. DHS’s Sports Venue Bag Search Procedures Guide and “Check It” bag search video are good resources.

     

    1. Best Practice:

    If bag check facilities are available, ensure bags are inspected before taking custody of the items. Bag check facilities should be located as far away from the venue as reasonably possible.

     

    Objectives:

    Accommodation and keeping potentially dangerous items away from the masses of people.

     

    Implementation:

    Ensure proper staff training and inspection of checked bags

    1. Best Practice:

    Develop a procedure to address abandoned items.

    • Don’t place unattended trash receptacles at access points to venue where patrons can discard or abandon prohibited items. Staff and make sure attendees do not dispose of items near entrances.

     

    Objectives:

    • These items are often discarded around entry doors/gates/perimeter of the venue.
    • They can become containers for IEDs.

     

    Implementation:

    Unless it is a weapon or illegal drug law enforcement officers do not need to be involved.

     

    Venue security staff should be responsible for these items-unless they are evidence, which law enforcement officers will handle.

     

    Create a disposal policy.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    This is applicable to larger events with security concerns.

    1. Best Practice:

    Develop effective ticket and credentialing policies and procedures in collaboration with all stakeholders.

     

    Objectives:

    Controls access (i.e. patrons, talent, media, staff, VIPS) to venue and specific areas during specific times.

     

    Implementation:

    These will vary by event type, location, security sensitivity, cost, etc.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    This is for events where you have controlled access and admission is by invitation, paid or prior registration. This also should be used when multiple events are occurring at the same venue and your event is closed.

    1. Best Practice:

    Consolidate credential management under one central authority with security oversight.

     

    Objectives:

    Centralization will eliminate confusion and enhance enforcement.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    More applicable to larger events and Event Producers.

    1. Best Practice:

    Issue credentials on an event basis and have an expiration date. Venue management, event staff, etc., should have photo I.D. cards that are used as credentials.

     

    Objectives:

    Controls counterfeiting.

     

    Implementation:

    To reduce counterfeiting consider using:

    • Two-sided printing
    • Unique shape/color
    • Use of RFID
    • Holograms
    • Remove previous date wristbands/credentials from bags or persons who return for new event

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    This is particularly import for large events where due to size of staff, they don’t know each other.

    1. Best Practice:

    Designate credentials for specific areas (where you have different areas with different patron access) that are clear and visible.

     

    Objectives:

    Access control with authentic and easily identifiable credentials.

     

    Implementation:

    Ensure credentials are designed so that they can be visually identified for specific access/function. Retrieve credentials from individuals that no longer have a need (i.e. contractors).

    1. Best Practice:

    Do not grant non-credentialed individuals access or give credentials to non-working or unauthorized individuals.

     

    Objectives:

    Prevents unauthorized access and allows control.

    1. Best Practice:

    Recommend a credential system that utilizes holograms, bar codes, RFID and/or photographs to identify the bearer and indicates by shape, size and color the area(s) to which the bearer has access.

     

    Objectives:

    Control and visual recognition.

     

    Implementation:

    Can employ electronic scanners for ticket/credential validation.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    For significant events with security concerns.

    1. Best Practice:

    Credential design should be kept as simple as possible (shapes, sizes, colors). Display credential boards at access points to restricted areas and train staff on the use of credential boards.

     

    Objectives:

    Over complicated credentials requiring a complex credential board for interpretation confuses the staff.

     

    Implementation:

    Access control with authentic and easily identifiable credentials.

     

    Employ anti-counterfeiting techniques.

    1. Best Practice:

    Design and color of credentials must be substantially different from those used in prior events.

     

    Objectives:

    Prevents individuals from using credentials from previous events and prevents confusion for staff.

    1. Best Practice:

    Issue photo credentials to all persons working the event, employees/staff, talent, and volunteers, public safety, medical, approved media, etc.

    • All requests for credentials from the media and sponsor/vendors should be in writing
    • Media, sponsors and vendors should be required to pick up their credentials in person using a photo ID to verify their identification

     

    Implementation:

    If possible use an online credential registration capability and require a photo ID when picking up credential.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    This is particularly import for large events where due to size of staff, they don’t know each other.

    • Best Practice:

    Credentials should be worn at all times and clearly displayed.

     

    Objectives:

    Avoids confusion.

     

    Implementation:

    Must be enforced.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    Particularly important at venues with simultaneous events.

    • Best Practice:

    Conduct testing of staff on access credential systems.

    • Immediately correct any deviations from policies and procedures

     

    Objectives:

    Control and consistency.

     

    Implementation:

    Measure effectiveness of policies and procedures through training, exercise and refinement.

    1. Best Practice:

    Conduct background screening on all staff (i.e. vendors, sponsors, event staff, contractors, volunteers, etc.) prior to issuance of their credentials.

     

    Objectives:

    Reduces liability.

     

    Implementation:

    NCS4 offers a cost-effective program, coupled with training to accomplish screening/training.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    When the event security posture requires it, but this is a good practice for your staff regardless.

    1. Best Practice:

    All ticketing and door/ checking personnel should be knowledgeable about tickets and credentials.

    • Test and monitor for compliance

     

    Objectives:

    Patrons become upset when personnel do not know what they are doing.

     

    Implementation:

    These personnel should also be familiar with the facility.

    1. Best Practice:

    If the venue allows onsite alcohol sales, follow local and state laws and regulations.

     

    Objectives:

    Legality of sales and possession.

     

    Implementation:

    Will differ from state to state.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    This is applicable only if alcohol is served at the event. This can produce significant legal issues if alcohol is served as part of the event.

    1. Best Practice:

    All sales personnel should meet age requirements and receive training on recognizing signs of impairment (i.e. refuse service, contact supervisor, etc.).

     

    Objectives:

    Training and reduction in legal liability.

     

    Even if this is contracted out, past experience indicates that the event organizer will also be sued.

     

    Implementation:

    State Alcoholic Beverage personnel are a great resource and in most states will offer training. Consider Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management (TEAM) coalition training. Visit www.team coalition.org for additional information.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    Ensure venue or catering bar is in compliance with state/local alcohol laws.

    1. Best Practice:

    Event and/or venue should create clearly written alcohol possession and use polices.

    • Specify that intoxication will not be tolerated and will result in ejection. Enforce the policy

     

    Objectives:

    Prevent public intoxication and liquor liability issues, maintain guest safety.

     

    Implementation:

    Policy needs to be communicated to attendees. Ensure that your policies are in compliance with state and local liquor regulations and comply with your insurance policy and permit.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    Intoxication often causes other issues that result in problems.

    1. Best Practice:

    Consider creating family friendly alcohol-free area(s).

     

    Objectives:

    Isolate drinkers from non-drinkers and minors.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    This is more relevant for family entertainment events.

    1. Best Practice:

    Train staff on recognizing patrons who appear to be impaired and what actions to take.

     

    Objectives:

    Lack of trained staff.

     

    Implementation:

    Have supervisors deny entry that should be enforced by law enforcement.

    1. Best Practice:

    If the venue has a no-alcohol policy and does not sell alcohol, develop a procedure for dealing with individuals that are in possession and/or consuming alcohol.

     

    Objectives:

    Policy enforcement.

     

    Implementation:

    Communication and enforcement of these policies will enhance the guest experience.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    If applicable to your venue/ event.

    1. Best Practice:

    Implement a secured perimeter around alcohol service areas, with an exterior and interior ID check, conducted by persons trained in ID verification. Limit quantity of drinks per participant per trip to the bar. Identify underage persons and legal persons visibly.

     

    Objectives:

    To address violations of state laws.

     

    Implementation:

    Make sure law enforcement working at the venue is aware of and understands current policies and the proper response– by law for a crime committed in their presence requires action.

     

    State alcohol enforcement may assist.

     

    Applicability/Scalability:

    Since alcohol is a major contributor of disruptive behavior this is a must when alcohol is served.

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